INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND THE ECONOMY
The construction of canals, transcontinental railroads, national highways and ports in the 20th century sparked economic growth, development and prosperity of millions of Americans. Infrastructure like roads, railways, ports, energy, telecommunication, IT, social and sound political system are prerequisites for manufacturing industries, distribution of products, marketing, cost reduction, foreign direct investment.
Infrastructure plays an important role in economic growth and development. It creates employment opportunities, contributes to poverty alleviation and ensures technology transfer in any country. Various analyses on the impact of infrastructure on economic growth and development have established strong relationship between infrastructure and growth from all economic perspectives. The importance of infrastructure sectors viz., construction, roads, telecommunications, IT, energy, manufacturing, engineering and finance, has long been recognized by both developed and developing countries and their leaders and policy-makers. Needless to say, without adequate infrastructure, development of businesses world-wide, globalization of trade, commerce and industries and world-wide financial transactions would not have been possible. Adequate investment in modern infrastructure is required as infrastructure sets the foundation for economic growth and development.
Though infrastructure is strategically vital for development, yet most of the developing and underdeveloped countries face a chronic lack of infrastructure facilities. Various reports on infrastructure show that one billion people in developing and underdeveloped countries, including two-thirds of the rural population in Africa, don’t have access to all-weather roads. Over one and a half billion people, including over 60 per cent of the African population, don’t have access to electricity. With globalization and advent of science and technology, the need for improving infrastructure frameworks, especially in developing countries in Asia and Africa, has become more pressing. This is not only to reduce unemployment and eradicate poverty but also to accelerate production and distribution activities at national and international levels. For proper utilization of natural resources and endowments, boosting production and climbing up the value-added chain, infrastructure development has no alternative.
Infrastructure and prosperity of the people of a country are very much intertwined. Long-term and medium-term strategic planning is required for infrastructure development to get corroborated benefits from the investments. The US is considered as number one economy in this century. Efficient and effective infrastructure underpins American economic strength to a great extent. The construction of canals, transcontinental railroads, national highways and ports in the 20th century sparked economic growth, development and prosperity of millions of Americans. More recently, massive investments in telecommunication,
IT and renewable energy have provided a launching pad for a 21st century economy. Infrastructure drive has powered China’s growth remarkably and it has become the world’s second largest economy. Economist Simon Rabinovitch wrote: “If you want to know why the Chinese economy has performed so well this year, the eastern city of Nanjing is a good place to begin with. With round-the-clock work on infrastructure mainly on new subway lines and tens of thousands of homes under construction, it epitomizes the investment drive that has allowed China to 7.8 per cent growth in the third quarter.”
Some countries in East Asia have made tremendous economic progress by making economic and social infrastructure conducive to economic development and growth. Malaysia, for example, achieved its independence from the British in 1957, made remarkable progress in economic growth and development due to prioritizing infrastructure development. Malaysia spent 42.4 per cent of its development budget in 1981-85, 79.3 per cent in 1986-90, 78.3 per cent in 1991-95 and 80.9 per cent in 1996-2000 in infrastructure development. In 2001-05, it reduced investment in infrastructure as the optimum level was achieved. The political, social and economic infrastructure has helped the country in inviting FDI (foreign direct investment) and local investment in high-value added industries. The country now expects to be high-income country by 2020.
Cambodia and Vietnam, the war-torn, politically devastated countries, undertook physical, political and social infrastructure programs with their own resources and with help of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Within a short span of time, they became successful and have now become a hub of FDI. The economies are growing rapidly.
Sub-Saharan Africa is one region where infrastructure improvements can spark greater economic development. Many countries there suffer from underdeveloped road and rail systems, rudimentary and unstable electric grids, poor water supply and sanitation systems, and congested ports and airports. “Infrastructure is probably the single-most important need for Africa to develop,” said Stephen Hayes, president of the Corporate Council on Africa, a group that promotes US-Africa commercial ties. This group advocates that to attain middle-income levels, Africa must double its investment in infrastructure. African nations at present invest about 2.0 per cent to 3.0 per cent of GDP (gross domestic product) in infrastructure. By contrast, China invests about 9.0 per cent of its GDP in infrastructure projects.
Bangladesh, a highly populated country in the world, should undertake massive and immediate infrastructure development planning for swift economic development and growth. The existing infrastructure of Bangladesh is not suitable for quick industrialization. Infrastructure like roads, railways, ports, energy, telecommunication, IT, social and soIt is important to believe and understand that every word in the Bible is true. Christ will truly come back in His glorified body.
Christ will sit on David’s real throne and reign over a real earth for 1,000 real years.
Many signs will show us that Christ is about to return in power and glory. It is important that we know what these signs are.
We know that If we can see some of these signs already , the Rapture must be close.
Apostasy and false teachers who have turned away from the truth will come in the last days before Christ return.
For example, there are now many false churches operating in The world . All these churches corrupt the truth from the Bible.
60% of people don’t believe in the Virgin Birth of Christ. 65% do not believe in life after death and yet another ,
80% do not believe in Christ’s literal return to earth. People everywhere are turning away from the truth.
Dear countrymen, the end is near of this world. There are many signs pointing to the end of this world, in the Bible we are told
People will have more knowledge and will travel more than ever before ( Daniel 12:4) every day people are traveling in and out of
Human beings often feel a strange ambiguity, a mixture of fascination and fear, when talking about the future. They want to know and at the same time they are also afraid. There are three ways to find out about the future:
Firstly we have Superstitious Clairvoyance/Divination Exampleslike horoscopes, tarot cards, fortune telling, etc. These predictions are never more than 5% right, which makes them 95% wrong. Some newspapers And Magazines here in Zambia,likes promoting horoscopes and cheat people by putting birth days and months of one’s birthday ,yet the bible says “And I Will cut off Witchcrafts out of thine hand; and thou shalt have no more soothsayers :’’ (Micah 5:12)
Secondly ,we have what I can call, Scientific Deduction. Thedepartment of Futurology at the University of Massachusetts isone of the leaders in this area. Energy, food and water resources together with the present population growth on the planet have indicated, for example, that the end of the world should be around 2050. Gilford University also says 2050. Their predictions have a 25% accuracy rate, which means they are 75% wrong.
Scriptural Declaration .The Bible is packed with predictions about the future. Scholars say that some 735 different events are foretold in the Word and 596 of these have come true to the letter. This gives us a percentage of 80%, BUT the remaining ones all deal with prophecies about the second coming of Christ and the end of the age, which gives it a 100% accuracy rate. One event has been predicted 318 times in the Bible, which is that Jesus Christ is coming back a second time. It is also the most predicted event in the Bible and absolutely certain to happen.
WHERE ON EARTH IS JESUS COMING BACK TO? Is it at Manda hill or Arcades? The answer is non of these places butJerusalem – the city of the great King. Remember he will come back in bodily form and thus will be localized.
There is such a remarkable contrast between His first and second coming that is worthwhile comparing the two.In His first coming, hardly anybody knew about it – the whole event happened virtually unnoticed, except for a few shepherds and astrologers who were heralded. During His second coming, the entire sky will light up and everybodywill know.
Three important words are used when referring to His second coming: Parousia means an important arrival, and is be used for a royal person or an invading army like on a Day.
In other words, it announces an arrival of tremendous significance. Epiphaneia means to appear, to come out where everybody can see you, like when royalty appears on the balcony of a palace. Apokalupsis means to be uncovered, not naked, but as you really are.
We will see Him as the Son of God in all His glory, not as when He walked the earth the first time when they saw no beauty that they would desire Him. Interestingly, there is no contrast between His first going (the ascension) and His second coming. Acts 1:11
WHEN IS JESUS COMING BACK ZAMBIA? Zambian Christians must stop putting their faith in these false teachers, whose job is to divide families and not uniting them .
To promote the works of the antichrist ,hence drawing many Zambians into a wrong path. I Advice you Church ! study the word of God so no one tells you their fake imaginations from the pity of hell. The Bible warns in 2 Timothy 4:2-4
‘’ Preach the word; be instant in seasons, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long suffering and doctrine. For the TIME will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables”
Now church, let us look at this closely, David Pawson says: There have been many predictions. Miller predicted 1843 – the 7th day Adventist Movement was born. The Seventh day Adventist founder predicted that Jesus was going to come in 1843 and many people believed this man and one wonders where he got that revelation from, but did Jesus come in 1843? Did the world end?
Russell predicted 1914 – the Jehovah’s Witness Movement was born. I wonder where Russell got all these lies and deceivinginnocent people with his false doctrine of the Coming of Jesus. If his doctrine was true his prediction would have come to pass! The Bible says that if you have a prophet among you he shall say something and it shall come to pass, but if what he says does not happen, know that I did not SEND him, but himself generates this from his mind. ‘’You cannot be a solution to a problem if you yourself are a problem’’. Martin Luther predicted 1636 and John Wesley predicted 1874.
These days, many people talk about us being the last generation, but keep in mind that not even Jesus knows the date. Only the Father keeps that date. Be very cautious of anybody telling you that he knows the date, WAKE UP ZAMBIA! STUDY THE BIBLE. He gave them the signs or signals and told them to watch and pray. These signals can be divided into 4 groups, and all other passages can be fitted into these four main groups that Jesus mentioned. Matt. 24
The World .He mentions three kinds of disasters: earthquakes, wars and famines. But also warns us not to trouble our hearts when we hear these things. These are but the birth pangs, not the death pangs. They are signs of the Beginning and not the end. In this spiritual vacuum, many false Christ’s will appear.
The Church.Again there are three features:There will come a time of universal persecution where the church will be hated by every nation and where there will be great pressure on the church. Matt. 24:9 The second warning is that the love of many will grow cold and the nominal churchgoer or Sunday Christian will disappear. Matt. 24:12.Thirdly, once the church is cleaned, it will be much better equipped to preach the gospel to all the nations. Matt. 24:14.Again there will be the danger of false prophets within the church, especially the ones who say, peace,peace.
The Middle East. Jesus quoted from Daniel and speaks about the abomination of desolation. The horror of this phrase is something so abhorrent that it is difficult to translate it into English. It was already fulfilled when a Greek Emperor, Antiochus Ephinanus, went into the temple and sacrificed a pig on the altar.
II Thess 2:4 speaks about a man of lawlessness, and we are told to flee from this man if we are in Jerusalem, but to stay put in the rest of the world. Trust your eyes, and do not listen to rumours. Keep watching for me, He said.
The Sky.The sun, moon and stars will be switched off. There will be no natural light whatsoever. It will be like getting the stage ready so that all people will be able to see the glory andsplendour of the risen Christ. Matt 24:29
The Bible makes it clear that no one knows the exact moment of the return of Christ.
The Bible does suggest, however, that the last generation of the church will sense that the time of his return is very near.
The longest statement by Christ about his return is found in Matthew 24: 1 – 25: 46. During this discussion Jesus said, ‘Even so, when you see all these things, you know that he is near, right at the door. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened’ (Matt 24: 33 – 34). However, Jesus went on to say, ‘No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven nor the Son, but only the Father… Therefore keep watch, because you do not know on what day your Lord will come’ (Matt 24: 36, 42).
In his letter to the Thessalonians, Paul also said something about this certainty and uncertainty concerning the time of the Lord’s return. Paul said, ‘Now brothers, about times and dates, we do not need to write to you, for you know very well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief.
The emphasis on the Second Coming of Christ in the New Testament is very practical. Without exception, the emphasis is always on present holy living and faithful service for Christ. In Jesus’ long discussion in Matt 24-25 about His return and the events that will accompany His return, he told four stories.
The interesting thing is that these four stories teach only two simple lessons, each lesson twice. The lessons are to be ready and to be faithful..
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und political system are prerequisites for manufacturing industries, distribution of products, marketing, cost reduction, foreign direct investment. All these contribute directly to economic growth. Electricity is the major source of power for most of the country’s economic activities. Bangladesh’s installed electric generation capacity was 8,525 MW in 2013, only three-fourth of which is considered to be available for use. Only 40 per cent of the population has access to electricity. Over and above, the country’s electricity generation plants have been unable to meet electricity demand over the past decade. Adequate and uninterrupted electricity supply is the most crucial need of the country.
Investments in many sectors are hampered due to shortage of electricity. Industrial sector, real estate and FDI are the worst sufferers. Fiscal support is highly desirable for electricity. Existing budgetary provision of Tk 64.50 billion (in FY 2013-14) is quite insufficient to meet the electricity crisis. Keeping 40 per cent people without electricity facility and 42 per cent population in the queue of ‘illiteracy’ will simply backslide the policy-makers ambition of making a ‘Digital Bangladesh’, reducing poverty level to 25 per cent, bringing the country to the status of middle-income country by 2021. The position of Bangladesh in electricity and internet uses in comparison with Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS countries) is shown below by a chart:
The road sector of Bangladesh is badly structured and is not at all affable for smooth movement of vehicles in cities, towns and highways. In this 21st century, the country still doesn’t have any four-lane highways. The narrow and unplanned roads cause huge national losses in the form of wastage of valuable man-hours, wastage of fuels by vehicles on the roads for a long time. The poorly-built roads of the country, simply slow down the life-styles of millions of people. These cause injuries and deaths to the people. Injury and death rates from road accidents in Bangladesh are among the highest in the world. Bangladesh has around 0.8 million motorized and 1.8 million non-motorized vehicles, with the former expected to double in the next 10 years. According to police statistics, road traffic crashes cause 45,000 deaths annually, but the unofficial figures are much higher. Even using official figures, road accident fatalities in Bangladesh would be about four times those of India (57 deaths per 10,000 motorized vehicles in Bangladesh versus 13 in India). Congestion, overloading, air pollution, and safety are major problems in Bangladesh’s transport sector. Delays in urban areas, especially in Dhaka and main highway corridors, as well as congestion in the Chittagong Port, continue to be major concerns for users that work as a deterrent to economic activity. Appropriate planning and implementation are urgently required to improve the road sector of the country. Building four-track highways can reduce delays and wastage of fuel consumption by commercial vehicles to a great extent.
M Teresa Kho, Country Director of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Bangladesh, recently said in a seminar in Dhaka: “Bangladesh has to address infrastructure deficits for higher economic growth. It must grow faster, if poverty is to be completely eradicated in a less than a decade’s time. The country has the potential for much higher growth due to advantageous location and availability of a large labor force”. The country with large labor force must develop its infrastructure with topmost priority.
Transport, energy, information and communication technology, and water infrastructure enable a country to develop its economy and improve the quality of life of its citizens. Infrastructure acts as the backbone of growth and social well-being, boosting employment, reducing the high costs of accessing markets, providing ways of reaching isolated communities, and ensuring access to basic services. Sound and stable social and political infrastructure is highly essential, in addition to physical infrastructure. It’s not worth investing in infrastructure in situations like political instability, weak governance, corrupt administration, economic insecurity, conflicting, confronting, deadly political culture and weak governance. Whatever the people achieve by hard work, by using the limited resources, everything goes to waste due to the brittle political culture of the country.
Research Bureau 2015
-he Financial Express [Dhaka] 08 Jan 2014.
-ProQuest. LLC 2015
-HT Media Ltd